Introduction Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a rare type of leukaemia, or blood cancer. Leukaemias or blood cancers affect the blood cells present in the blood. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is also known as chronic myelogenous and chronic granulocytic leukaemia. The term ‘chronic’ in CML indicates that the cancer progresses slowly than the acute form of this leukaemia, while the term ‘myeloid’ refers to the type of cells affected by this blood cancer.
Thereare expert oncologists in Gurgaon working at a leading cancer hospital in Gurgaon, which offers the best blood cancer leukaemia treatment in India. According to these experts, people with chronic myelogenous leukaemia tend to respond better to treatment when it’s started early. Symptoms CML doesn’t always reveal itself with obvious signs and symptoms during the early phase. It’s possible to live with CML for months or years without realizing it. But if and when the signs do present themselves, they include: Easy bleeding Feeling run-down or tired Fever Losing weight without trying Loss of appetite Pain or fullness below the ribs on the left side Pale skin Sweating excessively during sleep (night sweats) How Does CML Develop? Although not even the best experts working at the leading cancer hospitals in India or abroad know what sets off or initiates the process of development of CML, they do know how it progresses. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia occurs when something goes wrong in the genes of the blood cells. Here’s how it develops: First, an abnormal chromosome develops: Human cells usually contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. These chromosomes hold the DNA that contains the instructions (genes) that control the cells in your body. In people with CML, the chromosomes in the blood cells swap sections with each other. A section of chromosome 9 switches places with a section of chromosome 22, creating an extra-short chromosome 22 and an extra-long chromosome 9. The extra-short chromosome 22 is called the Philadelphia chromosome, named for the city where it was discovered. The Philadelphia chromosome is present in the blood cells of 90 percent of people with CML. Second, the abnormal chromosome creates a new gene: The Philadelphia chromosome creates a new gene. Genes from chromosome 9 combine with genes from chromosome 22 to create a new gene called BCR-ABL. The BCR-ABL gene contains instructions that tell the abnormal blood cell to produce too much of a protein called tyrosine kinase. Tyrosine kinase promotes cancer by allowing certain blood cells to grow out of control. Third, the new gene allows too many diseased blood cells:
Your blood cells originate in the bone marrow, a spongy material inside your bones. When your bone marrow functions normally, it produces immature cells (blood stem cells) in a controlled way. These cells then mature and specialize into the various types of blood cells that circulate in your body, namely: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. In CML, this process doesn’t work properly. The tyrosine kinase caused by the BCR-ABL gene causes too many white blood cells. Most or all of these cells contain the abnormal Philadelphia chromosome. The diseased white blood cells don’t grow and die like normal cells. The diseased white blood cells build up in huge numbers, crowding out healthy blood cells and damaging the bone marrow. As mentioned above, there is a hospital in Gurgaon known as one of the best cancer hospital in India where you can get the best blood cancer treatment in India. You can visit the hospital in case you or your loved ones require treatment.